Paleolithic and Neolithic Cultures
The Paleolithic "Old Stone" era began in about 40,000 - 10,000 B. C. The beginning of this period was marked by the first human hunter-gatherer societies. Hunting, fishing, and gathering of fruits and nuts were the main economic endeavors at the time. The responsibilities in these hunter-gathering societies were shared. The men of this period did the very dangerous hunting of large wild animals like bison and reindeer, while women gatherer fruits and nuts for an entire year. The small communities of 25-50 people came to consensus on decisions and ideas were shared. The extended family was core. Men and women both played a roll in child bearing. The people of this era lived in huts and
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With men occupied in hunting, it may well have been females who first unraveled the secrets of agriculture. Humans specialized in the wild plants they collected and the animals they hunted. They began to learn how to control the environment in order to domesticate plants and animals. The domestication of animals perhaps started with dogs, which were useful in hunting. Then they learned to keep sheep, goats, chickens and cattle. Next came farming. They learned to grow wheat, barley, then legumes (beans). Craft specialization was evident, in addition to farming and shepherding, occupations in trading and accounting, iron working, clothing making, jewelers, artists and mining developed. The villagers mined copper (period was also known as Copper Age), gems, perhaps for pottery and hunting tools. Accountants were used for trade transactions. Technological advancements came into use like the wheel and complex metal casting. In Europe, elaborate temple complexes and other monuments were built, which required complex mathematics. Also during the Neolithic period, religions developed. Gods and goddesses controlled everything. Gods and goddesses of the earth and fertility were worshipped. There was a strong urge to create cities near water. The organization and engineering that took place in this period is what lead humans to civilization.
Discuss the causes of ancient civilization.
Civilizations evolved in response to the need in