One of the Three Main Approaches in Counselling Psychology: Freud's Psychoanalysis

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Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician in 1900 he was both the medical doctor (neurologist) and philosopher, Fraud who was founder of the study of psychoanalysis also known as the study of the unconscious mind The Psychodynamic approach is deterministic free will. And free association this approach believes that people behaviour and feelings as adults are rooted in childhood experiences. Freud believed that much of peoples behaviour is determined by unconscious thoughts, memories etc. He compared the mind to an iceberg, with the tip of the iceberg being the conscious mind and the larger part as being the unconscious mind. Bernstein (1997) Further key issues within Freudian, or psychoanalytic approach is include the structure of …show more content…
It comprises of internalised values, ideals and moral guidelines, deriving from parental and authority figures. The Super Ego is capable of generating guilt when people contravene their personal or societal moral code (Hough, 1998). Super-Ego is to regulate the demands of the Id via moral influence on the Ego, through fear of loss of love or through fear of aggression from an external or parental authority (Nelson-Jones, 2006
Psychosexual development and argued that. The first of which is the oral stage, after which they move through the anal stage, then the phallic stage. The last two stages are the latency period and the genital stage. It is claimed that if one gets fixated at either Freud put forward that problems at any of these stages could lead to fixation and unresolved conflicts could lead to problem in adulthood. Freud talked of defence mechanisms as strategies that the ego adopts in order to protect itself against threat. (Hayes & Orrell 1998) Displacement diverts energy into another act when we cannot or don’t want to do something. Repression pushes unwanted memories, fears and wishes into the unconscious. Denial is often mentioned and this involves an individual refusing to accept events or denying the presence of certain emotions which promote anxiety. Other such defence mechanism includes; projection, reaction formation, regression and rationalisation, there is no agreed list of

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