Literature Review on Employee Motivation Essay

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Review of literature

Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being or ideal. The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior.

Gray and Starke defined motivation as “the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.”

Sayles defined motivation as “the processes that account for an individual’s
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On the other hand, individuals become de-motivated if they feel something in the organization prevents them from attaining good outcomes.”

Bassett-Jones &Lloyd presents that “the two views of human nature underlay early research into employee motivation. The first view focuses on Taylorism, which viewed people as basically lazy and work –shy”, and thus held that these set of employees can only be motivated by external stimulation. The second view was based on Hawthorn findings, which held the view that employees are motivated to work well for “its own sake” as well as for the social and monetary benefits this type of motivation was internally motivated.”

Pinder described work motivation as “the set of internal and external forces that initiate work-related behavior, and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration”.

Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it.
Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli is coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even

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