Literature Review: Areas of Concern and Chanlleges for Music Educators

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Literature Review
Although music educators often experience challenges in the inclusion setting, most agree that music is beneficial to all students, including students with disabilities (SWD). This literature review includes areas of concerns and challenges that music educators often experience in the inclusive setting as a result of (a) lack of training in special education, (b) lack of planning time, (c) scheduling issues and (c) lack of experience using music therapy (MT) practices in the inclusive music setting (Spohn, 2008). Nevertheless, it is possible that because music educators teach a variety of learning and behavioral needs, the most challenging areas perceived in the inclusive setting comprise (a) developing social, (b)
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According to the NCLB Act of 2001, music is a core subject; however, the federal mandate has affected music programs in a number of ways. For example, (a) music program budget cuts, (b) music curriculum is not aligned with special education practices, (c) music educators lack support and training in special education practices, (d) music instructional time is used to support core subject material and (e) music educators instruct double classes to provide core subject educators with common planning time (Adameck & Darrow, 2005; Spohn, 2008).
Consequently, music educators battle back-and-forth between the positive effect that music have on all students, and the challenges caused by inclusion. Nevertheless, becoming knowledgeable and equipped to work with SWD might increase the effectiveness of music instruction to all students (De L'Etoile, 2005). Becoming knowledgeable in special education practices might not always be enough, however, active participation in in individual educational program (IEP) develops an awareness of diverse individual students' learning needs in the inclusive setting. Therefore, if the NCLB ACT of 2001 require SWD to learn alongside with non-disabled students in the general classroom, then it is equally important to develop and provide music educators with

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