How Did the Role of the Jewish People Change During the Second Industrial Revolution?

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The Jews in Europe were treated very poorly until a reform began in the late eighteenth century. The Jews lived in ghettos where they were not even considered citizens. The Jewish Enlightenment questioned this treatment.

Emancipation is defined as, "the legal process, which began in Europe with the French Revolution, or granting to the jews equal civic rights in the countries in which they reside." The Jewish emancipation occurred during the Second Industrial Revolution due to the rise of nation-state and mercantilism (Calgary). The Jewish emancipation began at the end of the eighteenth century. It offered jews social, economic, and political opportunities, but it challenged traditional jewish life and values by making
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They were able to be elected to Parliament in Great Britain after 1858. Austria-Hungary gave full legal rights to Jews in 1867. They quickly entered politics and took office in some of the highest positions. During this time Jews did not encounter much discrimination or prejudice treatment. This was a great time for them to excel in the professions they choose and in cultural activities.

Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786), a pioneer of the Jewish Enlightenment, was a German philosopher and author. He was a strong advocate of Jewish civil rights. He was born in Dessau, Germany. In 1750 he became a tutor to children and a silk merchants partner. In 1754 he became good friends with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, a supporter of the Jewish Emancipation. Lessing published work by Mendelssohn and together they published a satire called Pope A Metaphysician. Mendelssohn wrote books on Judaism, but his most important achievement was opening the world of German language and literature to his fellow Jews with his translations of the first five books of the Old Testament, the Psalms, and other sections of the Bible into German.

Although life was good for most of the Jews due to the positive changes of the enlightenment, some were treated poorly by anti-Semites. Anti-Semites did anything possible to hurt Jewish people including accusing Jewish bankers of causing the economic stagnation in the 1870s. Many Jews felt this treatment was only…

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