Horror and fear at the emergence of the monster in Chapter 5 of Frankenstein

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Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is a work of Gothic horror - a branch of romantic fiction characterized by its focus on sublime emotions. The genre is often inspired by nightmares with the intent to inspire horror and emotion in the reader.
The era in which the novel was written, around the time of 1816, followed a period of great scientific advancement. Shelley's style is heavily influenced by the romantic poets with whom she spent time and her plot was influenced almost undoubtedly by the scientists of her time, who after its recent discovery had a great fascination with electricity and its effects on the human body. Public displays of experiments were common, something Shelley would have been aware of. The famous French philosopher
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Though at first the monster is innocent, his repulsive appearance means that he is rejected by society and treated brutally and cruelly. After having experienced only pain from human contact, the monster learns to hate mankind and his creator and turns instead to evil actions. After the death of his love, Elizabeth, Frankenstein dedicates his life to hunting down the monster removing him from the Earth. Frankenstein dies in the search and the monster takes his creators body, resolving to take his own life. The novel ends enigmatically as they both fade ?into the dark and distance.?
At the beginning of Chapter 5, Frankenstein has reached the climax of his research and is waiting for the monster to awaken. The opening sets a dark and fearful tone for the chapter. Shelley sets the scene as a ?dreary night of November? where ?the rain pattered dismally against the panes?. This use of pathetic fallacy, a technique which marks it as a branch of romantic fiction, uses the weather to signal the atmosphere - in this case it is dull and depressing, especially with the dark, bare connotations of November. She further develops the dark and foreboding atmosphere with vocabulary which evokes the idea of pain and suffering, ?agony? and ?convulsed? for example. The negative tone is perhaps surprising when you consider the lengths of his obsession and the ?ardour? with which he had pursued his research.

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