HIV Epidemic in Uganda Essay examples

2008 Words 9 Pages
Question 1
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) epidemic in Uganda
Uganda, an East African country south of the Sahara has been battling with the HIV pandemic as far back as the 1990s when 18.5% of Ugandans were infected at its peak (Foundation, 2012). Currently, out of a population of 33.6 million people, 1.5 million are living with AIDs, at a prevalence rate of 7.2% among those aged between 15-49 years. Of the ones infected, 190,000 are children (UNAIDS, 2012). In the mid nineties and until recently, the prevalence of HIV started to gradually drop reaching 6.4% owing to the government policies of the ‘ABC’s i.e. Abstain, Be faithful, Use a Condom.
However, reports show a steady rise in the prevalence of HIV, currently standing at 7.3%
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Question 2
Advantages to the individual of starting ARV treatment at CD4 500cells/mm3 HIV virus infects the immunological cells e.g. macrophages, T-cells, dendritic cells. The virus spreads and viral replication takes place. Immune activation takes place resulting in presentation of CD4+ T cells as targets for the HIV virus which get depleted leading to impairment of the immune system which fails to control the infection, resulting in the development of a new viral strain, which causes a further drop in CD4+ T cells and increase in viral load. Symptoms of AIDS appear when the CD4 count drops to below 200 cells/mm3; as a result of the direct effect of the HIV virus on the thymus, lymph nodes and the central nervous system (Medicine, Infectious Diseases IDM 501 HIV/AIDS, v 5.0, 2013).
Based on the pathogenesis of HIV, an individual starting ARVs at a high CD4 of 500cells/mm3 would

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