Genetic Modification Essay

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Genetic Modification

Over 20 years ago it was discovered that genes, and parts of genes, could be extracted from DNA using protein "scissors" then copied, or cloned.

The gene could then be equipped with genetic "switches" to turn it up or down and inserted back into a living organism. This is the basis of genetic modification. It allows the sequences of genes to be determined.

Transferring single genes between different plants and animals, turning existing genes up or down, or removing a gene from its original position and placing it in a new position in the same organism are all referred to as genetic modification (GM). The terms genetic engineering (GE) or genetic manipulation also
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Its goal was to discover the approximate 50,000 genes that make up the human genome, make them accessible for further biological study and to determine the complete sequence of the 3 billion DNA subunits.

Knowledge gained through this research will allow scientists and doctors of the future to prevent or treat most diseases at the level of genes.

While it is now common to screen infants for inherited genetic diseases, further understanding of the human genome will allow doctors to determine a person’s chances of developing particular diseases later in life. They will then be able to give advice or treatment to prevent, slow or cure those diseases.

Cloning technology

A "clone" is a copy of a plant, animal, micro-organism or gene derived from a single common ancestor gene, cell or organism. Identical twins are natural clones from the one fertilised egg. A plant cutting is a clone of the original plant.

Some confusion arises because the word clone is also applied to genes. A gene is said to be cloned when its sequence is multiplied many times in a common laboratory procedure. The cloning of a gene is a step in determining its sequence and initiating many types of experiments to understand its function and biology.

The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at the Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly" in 1996, aroused

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