Every child’s development is distinctive, multipart, and complex. Development comes to pass in five areas. SPICE refers to the five areas of development that all children share. Social, physical, intellectual, creative, and emotional equals SPICE (Early childhood education). Erik Erikson developed a theory of development that considers the impact of external factors from infancy to later life. So, when thinking about early childhood education the one detail that comes to mind is development. Emotional-social development is one aspect of development that is greatly influenced by factors in the environment and the experiences a child has.
Early childhood reveals a distinctive opportunity for the foundation of a healthy development and a
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Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalys, developed a psychosocial theory of development that considers the impact of external factors, parents, and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood (Erikson’s Stages of Development, 2008). In the preschool years children will go through Erikson’s Theory of infant and toddler personality: Trust vs. mistrust – a trusting infant expects the world to be good and gratifying so he feels confident about venturing out and exploring. While, the mistrustful baby cannot count on the kindness and compassion of others, so she protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her. Trust comes from a warm, sensitive parent and reasonable expectations for impulse control. Without sufficient trust there can be adjustment problems. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – a self confident secure child is provided with suitable guidance and reasonable choices. While, the parent that is under controlling will produce a shamed and doubtful child in his abilities to control impulses and therefore will act completely on his own (Berk, 2007).
Social-emotional development is linked to educational accomplishments. A recent study on social and emotional risk and protective factors that predict early school problems or success found that "children who do not begin kindergarten socially and emotionally competent are often not successful in the early years of school—and can be