Different Factors that Threaten Self-Esteem Essay

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Self-esteem is an essential part of human beings and an important benchmark of psychological well-being (Clay, Vignoles, & Dittmar, 2005; Tirlea, Truby, & Haines, 2013). A complex combination of factors influence self-esteem (defined as an individual’s overall positive or negative feelings of worth) including self-evaluation based on success, appearance, intelligence, and relationships, as well as perceived evaluation by others, which can have powerful effects on various life outcomes (e.g. academic and work achievement, self-confidence, and hazardous behavior; Hsiang-Ru, Chang-Ming, Jiunn-Chern, Pi-Hsia, Wei-Lun, & Wan-Yu, 2009; Myers & Twenge, 2013; Neff & Vonk, 2009; Orth, Robins, & Widaman, 2012).
There are a number of different
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Research shows that numerous self-esteem interventions have been created, but many focus on primary prevention and target adolescents, abandoning older populations. Adolescence is an important constructive period for self-esteem but developmentalists emphasize continued growth occurring well into emerging adulthood (Berger, 2010; Ghaderi, Martensson, & Schwan, 2005; Hsiang-Ru et al., 2009; Mcvey, Davis, Tweed, & Shaw, 2004; Richardson & Paxton, 2010). Many self-esteem improvement programs have been implemented into junior high schools, in an effort to try to alleviate issues involving self-worth before they arise (Ghaderi et al., 2005; Hsiang-Ru et al., 2009; Mcvey et al., 2004; Richardson & Paxton, 2010; Tirlea et al., 2013). For instance, Hsiang-Ru, Chang-Ming, Jiunn-Chern, Pi-Hsia, Wei-Lun, and Wan-Yu (2009) implemented a 32-week self-esteem program into seventh grade health and physical education classes at two public junior high schools in Taiwan in hopes to heighten self-esteem. The program included five factors of self-esteem (e.g. sense of security, selfhood, affiliation, competence, and mission) and was enmeshed with the health and physical education textbook curriculum (Hsiang-Ru et al., 2009). The program included various activities, lectures, discussions, group interactions, peer support, and exercises (Hsiang-Ru et al., 2009). Results showed significant increases in boys’ physical self-esteem and girls’ family self-esteem but no significant increases in

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