Culture Essay example

2168 Words 9 Pages
CRAM Exclusive
Essay Sample
Hofstede (1997) defined culture as the “collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others” (p. 6). He referred to mental programming in order to explain patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. Cultural manifestation is identified as symbols, heroes, rituals, and values as a learned programming that is dependent on a social environment. Values represented the deepest manifestations of culture and are considered culture’s building

middle of document…

India was ranked with a 77 power distance index, which is relatively high compared to the world average of 56.5. Hofstede’s rankings and research has shown hierarchy and levels of inequality are deeply rooted in their culture (Kirkman, Chen, Farh, Chen, & Lowe, 2009). Thailand scored a moderately average index of 64, while the United States ranked an extremely low index of 40 (Itim International, 2009). This demonstrated Indian and Thai cultures “expect people to display more respect for individuals of higher status” compared to Americans who expect greater equality between societal levels (Croucher et al., 2009, p. 177).
Individualism versus Collectivism
The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups will determine whether the cultural group is considered individualist or collectivist (Itim International, 2009). Collectivists place great importance on the in-group while individualists value the self. Therefore, collectivists stress group goals while sacrificing their personal objectives, value relationships to a high degree, and look after one another in exchange for loyalty. In contrast, individualists perceive themselves as independent from a group, emphasize personal goals over in-group objectives, and primarily focus on self-concepts and self-reliance (McCann, Honeycutt, & Keaton, 2010).
Cross-cultural studies discovered American participants preferred individualist values while Indian and Thai participants reported higher levels of
CRAM Exclusive

Related Documents

  • Japanese culture Essay example

    there are still social differences between different people within this culture. Japanese people are very fad-oriented. They want the newest and the best in every thing they have. As a result, they only buy name-brand clothes and goods. Having name-brand things is a sign of their social status. If they can afford "better" things, then their status is higher. Social status is very important to the Japanese. For example, the depth of one's bow when meeting depends upon the other person's status

    Words: 1431 - Pages: 6
  • Culture Issues in Management - Fijian Culture Essay example

    For example, I have the opportunity to work with a Fijian native that has individualized himself and joined the United States Navy. Asked what influenced him to do so, Petty Officer Alvinesh Jit says he “was encouraged by his family to move to America and explore what education and experiences were available.” Petty Officer Jit has since married, raised 3 children, and advanced to the ranks of a First Class Logistics Specialist in the United States Navy. Power Distance “Power distance reflects

    Words: 1077 - Pages: 5
  • Corporate Culture Essay example

    creating a culture for an organization based on the models set by the Container Store, a national retail chain dealing in storage and organization products. The specific theories that will be addressed are co-cultures, constraints (established through norms), action chains and culture shock/adaptation. These theories, though anthropological in nature, address issues that are relevant in the study of communication. Review of Literature Individuals belong to at least one culture, and most people

    Words: 6312 - Pages: 26
  • Culture of Entrepreneurship Essay examples

    Elizabeth Pinchot, Intra-Corporate Entrepreneurship,      This idea of internal entrepreneurship has worked in the past. Throughout history the effect has been great. ‘In Europe, for example, the growth of the cities in which merchants had some independence from the feudal lords brought about a climate of experimentation and then the Renaissance. The result of this social invention (or perhaps rediscovery) was a vast increase in wealth

    Words: 773 - Pages: 4
  • Germany's Culture Essay examples

    directly or indirectly with the agricultural, forest and fisheries sectors; approximately a fifth of them are employed in primary production ("Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Consumer Protection"). One major pinnacle of German culture is its festivals and celebrations. Oktoberfest is the largest festival worldwide lasting 16 days, attracting a multitude of visitors. The first ever Oktoberfest was in 1810, celebrating a royal wedding, horse races, and other delightful ceremony’s

    Words: 1276 - Pages: 6
  • Business Culture and Strategy Essay example

    Strengths will become Weaknesses. For example, the original bar in the city center will attract a large number of customers, and later In town and city centers, in particular, the market now appears to be over-supplied. O and T can use PESTEL to analysis. Since S W change, it brings O T sometimes. 3.1 Organisation culture in JD Wetherspoon ‘Shared values’ are concerned with what ought to be in an organization and tell employees what things are important. For example: People are its best

    Words: 1827 - Pages: 8
  • Organizational Culture Research Essay examples

    [edit] Characteristics of healthy organizational cultures Organizations should strive for what is considered a “healthy” organizational culture in order to increase productivity, growth, efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other counterproductive behavior. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture, including: * Acceptance and appreciation for diversity * Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company

    Words: 7415 - Pages: 30
  • Adapting to a New Culture Essay examples

    If we arrive in this country with the notion of some day becoming successful and achieving the American dream, we must then acclimate ourselves to this new culture and learn as much as we can about it. Abiding by their set of rules and standards, as well as educating our selves and acquiring the language, is a must to obtain the rewards immigrants aspire. Many may believe that Americans are disrespectful or rude as they have different mannerisms and behaviors that we are probably not accustomed to

    Words: 875 - Pages: 4
  • Art & Popular Culture: The Warhol Effect Essay examples

    acceptable in the high art culture, Warhol would refuse to do this, because he believed that only a machine could perfectly replicate his images. His works make a statement about the influence of machines in our everyday lives, how everything can be reproduced and mass produced with a silk screen, or a click of a button. Warhol used such every day, common images, that we cannot deny their presence in our lives. Warhol took the most basic of the human needs, for example, appetite for food and made

    Words: 1542 - Pages: 7
  • Impact of Organization Culture on Commitment Essay example

    The culture gained more importance now than past and organization required for the development their workforce. Currently, organizational culture is fundamental component of each business. The organizational culture communicated to the all level of management because organization achieve goal when values are shared among all workforce of the organization. The workforce aligned with the culture of organization give lot of benefits to the organization. I examine the relationship between the organizational

    Words: 2466 - Pages: 10