Cryogenics Essay

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Cryogenics is a largely growing field, relatively innovative in the field of science and research. It deals with freezing temperatures below –150 degrees Celsius (-238 degrees Fahrenheit) using oxygen, helium I, helium II (which are both are chemically identical), and nitrogen. These are cooled to the point of liquidation and used to freeze diverse materials and substances. “At these extreme conditions, such properties of materials as strength, thermal conductivity, ductility and electrical resistance are altered…materials at cryogenic temperatures are as close to a static and highly ordered state as possible.” Cryogenics is more than the term for freezing, but more precisely for temperatures below –150 degrees
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New tendons are “doubled up” for more strength and are stiffer. After the replacement surgery, the tendon will be stronger than it was will heal better. The meniscus is also being replaced in cryogenic surgery and becoming increasingly more popular. The pain a patient receives after the surgery was put into a scale called the Lysholm scale. “Patients were asked to rate the overall severity of their pain on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 representing no pain and 10 representing the worst pain imaginable. The average postoperative pain level was 2.7.” Most patients were able to do most of the normal pivoting knee exercises that they were able to do prior to receiving the operation.
Veins and blood vessels are cultivated for transportation from either one body to another or from one body part to another on the same person. These veins are used in vascular reconstruction. This replacement can save a patients entire appendage. A vein, specifically the saphenous vein, from a patient can be taken out and cryogenically preserved and transplanted in to the same person’s heart in coronary bypass surgery.
The human heart has recently been a major topic in cryogenic labs. “In 1984, Cryolife (a corporation located in northeast Georgia) advanced cardiovascular medicine when it introduced and made commercially available cryopreserved human heart valves, providing cardiovascular surgeons with new, important

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