Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate

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Comparing the Solubility's of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride and Potassium Nitrate

Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrate

Background Information Molecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways. The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution. It takes energy to break bonds between C12H22O11 molecules and it also takes energy to break the hydrogen bonds in water. These hydrogen bonds have to be disrupted in order to insert a
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Polarity - Generally only polar solute molecules will dissolve in polar solvents and only non-polar solute molecules will dissolve in non-polar solvents. Polar solute molecules have positive and negative ends. So if a polar solute molecule is placed in a polar solvent then the positive ends of solvent molecules will attract the negative ends of solute molecules. This type of intermolecular force is known as di- pole-dipole interaction. The type of intermolecular force in present in non-polar molecules is called London Dispersion forces. Here the positive nuclei of the atoms of the solute molecules will attract the negative electrons of the atoms of a solvent molecule. Branching - This factor only applies to organic compounds. The amount of carbon branching will increase solubility because more branching will reduce the size of the molecule, making it easier to solvate.

Chemicals The chemicals I will be using will be: 1. Copper Sulphate - A salt soluble in water and methanol. Blue crystals. (CuSO4 SH2O) White colour when hydrated. May irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat. May affect liver if inhaled or swallowed. 2. Sodium Chloride - Common rock salt. (NaCl) 3. Potassium Nitrate - Colourless crystals. May ignite combustible materials. (KNO3) May

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