Climate of Egypt Essay

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Climate of Egypt

Cairo, Egypt, located in Northern Africa between Libya and the Gaza Strip, is on the eastern bank of the Nile River. Egypt, which is comprised of 97% desert, experiences mild winters and hot summers, with an average temperature of 71.1 degrees Fahrenheit (21.7 degrees Celsius), and receives only 1inch of rainfall a year.

With only 5% of the land occupied, Egypt has a population of approximately 69,536,644 inhabitants. Cairo, the largest city in Africa, as well as the capital of Egypt, is home to over 15 million people. Its overpopulation has led to many changes within the country which have had a great effect on the society and environment of Egypt.

The desert climate region has experienced many changes
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Therefore, the drying trend in Africa, and particularly of the Sahara Desert, as well as the Nile River, has led to multiple agricultural changes within Africa. The drying trends have also caused famine and draught. In fact, the great famines of 2180-2130, and then again 200 years later, were direct results of the “abnormal prevalence of southerly winds from the desert and low level of the River Nile- i.e. failures of the yearly flood” (Lamb 145).

Similarly to Chad, Cairo has seen significantly drier climate than earlier in it history. This is known because of the documented yearly floods of the Nile, “some records inscribed on stone go back to the first dynasty of the pharaohs around 3100 BC”, which seemed to have lower levels of flooding as the years progressed (Lamb 90). Lamb attributes this to “a climate development of hemispheric, and probably global, extent” (Lamb 124). The flooding of the Nile was a natural phenomenon which aided Egyptians with irrigation and agriculture. It was this use of agriculture which led to the cultivation of Cairo.

Originally, settlers in Egypt formed communities along the Nile for its water source. Lamb notes that “It has been concluded by some that the rise of Egypt, and the organized cultivation of the Nile valley by use of the yearly flood for irrigation, may have been a necessary response to the great

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