Introduction Child maltreatment is a pervasive problem in the United States, as well as other countries. Child maltreatment touches everyone, from the child to the nurse that cares for the child to the entire community. I have chosen to research this problem because of its far reaching effects on the community and its preventable nature.
Research on prevention Research on the prevention of child maltreatment focuses on home visitation programs, abusive head trauma prevention programs, and parent training programs (Krugman, Lane, & Walsh, 2007). Mikton and Butchart (2009) also concluded that there are four promising intervention, which include: home visitation, parent education, abusive head trauma education, and programs that
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Most of the evidence has found that the programs only reduce the risk factors for a child to be maltreated but that it may not reduce the incidences of child maltreatment (Mikton & Butchart, 2009). One program, The Nurse Family Partnership, is the only program that has randomized controlled trails that show that it does decrease the incidences of child maltreatment. One author reports that the program has shown a reduction in rates of abuse, neglect, injury in children, and number of pregnancies in mothers (Dawley, Loch, & Bindrich, 2007). Mikton and Butchart (2009) report that there was a 48% reduction in child abuse cases at a 15 year follow up. Newton and Vandeven (2010) point out that if the programs are not replicated with fidelity then the model may not be as effective. Many of the other home visitation models are not reproduced correctly and this has made it difficult to study the effectiveness of the programs (Newton & Vandeven, 2010). Krugman, Lane, and Walsh (2007) concur with this observation and reference the Healthy Families of America, which is implemented differently in each location. Another interesting point that many authors have pointed out is that the visitation programs are not as effective when a non-nurse or paraprofessional is the individual that does the home visits (Krugman, Lane, & Walsh, 2007). It is also noted that the Nurse Family Partnership has not been effective in reducing intimate