Characteristics of Cells Essay

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For many year, scientists have been researching and experimenting to understand how life on earth began and what was the turning point. Many studies and research were done in order to answer this question. After many years of research, scientists finally discovered the essence of life to be the cell. In order to consider something alive, the cells in the organism should be able to grow, reproduce, have the ability to process information, and carry out chemical reactions (Freeman 1). Even though cells are small, they are very complex and they are the functional unit in the human body. After discovering the cell, scientists wanted to know what is the structure of the cell. Under a microscope, an english scientist by the name of Robert Hooke …show more content…
Both types of cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane that protects the cell and controls what goes in and what goes out of the cell.
Within the cell, there are different structures that contributes to the function of the cell. Some cells contain a nucleus and some cells don’t; the nucleus is where the DNA of the cell is stored. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane of its own called the nuclear envelop; this envelop controls what goes in and out of the nucleus (Karp 9). Cells that contain a nucleus contain structure called the nucleolus. The nucleolus contains a large amount ribosomes which contributes to its function which is protein synthesis (Karp 428). The region between the nucleus and the cell membrane is called the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains the organelles of the cell and a liquid environment known as the cytosol (Freeman 3). Another cell organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum; the endoplasmic reticulum is divided into two categories: the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The only way to distinguish between the two is by the presence of ribosomes. The rough endoplasmic reticulum will contain a large number of ribosomes while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum doesn't contain any ribosomes. They also have two different functions; the rough endoplasmic reticulum function is proteins synthesis. On the other hand, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is useful for lipid synthesis (Pack

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