Benzene Essay

519 Words 3 Pages

     Benzene, C(6)H(6), is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that is insoluble in water.Its boiling point is 80 degrees C (176 degrees F). In the past benzene was obtained from the distillation of coal in the absence of air. Today most benzene is made syntheticallyfrom petroleum products.
     The benzene is a closed ring of six atoms connected by bonds that resonatebetween single and double bonds; each carbon is also bound to a single atom. Benzene isinsoluble in water but mixes in all proportions with organic . Benzene is itself an excellentsolvent for certain and for most simple organic chemicals. It is one of the most commonly used solvents in the organic chemical
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Because this simplistic structure could not accountfor all of the unique properties of benzene and its derivatives, German chemist JohannesThiele suggested in 1899 that the bonds between carbon atoms exhibit resonance. That is,each bond oscillates between being a double and a single bond (see aromatic compounds).
In modern chemistry, benzene is generally considered to have six identical carbon-carbonbonds, each lying somewhere between a single and a double bond. This has been verifiedby studies showing that the carbon-carbon bond distance in benzene is 0.139 nanometers,which lies between the single carbon-carbon bond distance of 0.154 nanometers and thedouble carbon-carbon bond distance of 0.134 nanometers.
     Benzene is an excellent solvent. Its main use, however, is in the preparation ofother compounds. The compounds prepared from benzene, in the order of quantityproduced, are styrene, for polymerization; phenol; detergents; aniline, for dyes; andchlorine-containing compounds. Other uses include the production of pharmaceuticals,varnishes, and plastics. Inhalation or ingestion of benzene causes acute irritation of themucous membrane, producing restlessness and convulsions and sometimes resulting indeath from respiratory failure. Harmful amounts may be absorbed

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