The purpose of Chapter two is to review literature related to the major variables within the study. Two literature reviews were conducted. The first literature review examined the retention rates and low standardized test scores on Students taking Middle School Math. This follows the purpose of the conceptual framework, the Keller’s ARCS model(1987). Here, there will be literature related to inform the study that is related to the research design, intervention design, and measurement instruments. Lastly there will be a section on the Conceptual Framework.

Retention of Middle School Mathematical Students

President Barack Obama (2008) started his term by saying

The agenda starts with education. Whether you’re conservative or
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How students perform in middle grade Mathematical and Science courses effects ultimately income after postsecondary careers. With Math and Science courses in grades 5-8 being such an integral part of academic performance, it is one of the least analyzed areas of research (Singh, Granville et al. 2002). This indicates why there seems to be a performance gap with students in these two core areas. Some of the areas where schools can help students perform better in Mathematics and Science courses are providing (a) academic engagement, (b) attitudes toward these subjects, and (c) importance of influence in future education and career possibilities (Ladson-Billings 1997; Singh, Granville et al. 2002; Reys, Reys et al. 2003; Neild, Balfanz et al. 2006).

Ladson-Billing (1997) see retention of Mathematics’ classes a tragedy; the United States students have far lower than other competing technological countries. He feels that one reason that Mathematical grades are low deal with a stigma of Math equaling “nerd-ness” thus not being synonymous with being part of their peers who they want assimilate to in middle and high schools. School systems moved towards standard base learning in the 1990’s forcing teaching to mimic each other using teacher-directed approaches while they learned using listening, drill, worksheet, assessment, and reinforcement or remediation. Ladson-Billing (1997) also observed