As Toid by The Egg: Nonfiction Biology Article Summary Essay example

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In the article, As toid by the egg by the author Susan Gaidos, the general subject matter/theme of the article is how reproduction occurs with an egg and a sperm to create new individuals. The main ideas which will be addressed in the article are how the egg and sperm reproduce, the challenges the sperm faces to get to the egg, how the egg and the sperm have evolved over time since originally the cells looked the same, proteins are involved in the reproduction, and a discussion on reproductive failure. In Biology class we are learning about protein synthesis and this article discusses protein that help with sperm and egg reproduction.

The article was mainly about how an egg reproduces with a sperm to create new individuals. The
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Sperms compete with each other to get to the egg. Sperms are in a hurry. The egg moves at a slower rate than the sperm and it wants to select the best sperm. The egg will select a sperm that is optimal and block the other sperms. The male and female cells use to be identical. Then slowly this changed over time for female cells to get bigger and male cells to get smaller. There are several proteins involved with reproduction called ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 protein. The proteins have changed rapidly over time since they are involved in the reproduction. Reproduction failure can sometimes occur due to mismatch in the egg and sperm proteins. In the article there is additional research to understand why there is an issue with reproduction “We’re trying to look at the whole approach - how the sperm-egg recognition system works together - rather than isolating a gamete and asking what's wrong with the sperm or what’s wrong with the egg.” Swanson says. “In fact, both of those may be normal, but it’s just the interaction that’s mismatched.” (Gaidos 19) In summary the failure may not be due to egg or sperm. The failure could be in the interaction between the egg and sperm. The author was investigating the following questions How does the egg and sperm create the new individuals?, How proteins help or hinder sperm accessing the egg?, Why do reproductive proteins evolve so quickly?, and How do the proteins impact reproductive failure? The

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