Essay about Anxiety and Athletic Perfomance

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Anxiety and Athletic Performance

Athletes today need to be able to cope with the anxiety and pressure that is placed on them in the competitive world of sports. A large deal of research has been done on examining the relationship between anxiety and performance within the field of athletics. This paper is going to show that the mind in an athlete has a lot to do with the result of the particular event. In order to show that anxiety in athletes is a significant problem this paper is going to be set up in three different areas in order to explain exactly how anxiety affects the athlete. The first section of the paper is going to explain the history and terminology on the study of anxiety in athletes. Next, this paper will
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Although this model game some explanation to why performances deteriorated when individuals felt stress, it did not compare athletes that were in the same situation who had different arousal levels (Edward and Hardy).

Because of the many faults that researchers found with the inverted U- hypothesis, researchers “attempted to account for the differences in performances of individuals through the concept of individualized zones of optimal functioning,” or otherwise known as IZOFs. This theory states that each athlete has an optimal level of pre- performance anxiety, which results in peak performances. However, just like the inverted U, if the pre-performance anxiety lies outside the area of the IZOF, then performance will deteriorate. IZOFs can be determined by repeatedly measuring anxiety and performance. Edwards and Hardy explain that even though this is a better model then the inverted U- hypothesis, it still fails to explain the factors that account for the individual differences in performance among athletes (Edward and Hardy).

The next theory that seemed to make an impact was the ‘multidimensional anxiety theory which expanded off a previous theory called the ‘reversal’ theory. In this model it shows that cognitive anxiety (when there is a fear of failure) to have a negative linear relationship with performance. And as the opposite of

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