Animal Farm, by George Orwell: An Allegory to the Russian Revolution

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In George Orwell’s Animal Farm, the pigs take over Manor Farm and dominate the weaker animals by using a combination of strength, fear, and trickery. This book is an allegory to the Russian Revolution, which led to Josef Stalin’s rise to power and the beginning of his dictatorship. In the novel Farmer Jones symbolizes Czar Nicholas II and Napoleon symbolizes Josef Stalin. The animals overthrow their dictator, Farmer Jones, and eventually end up replacing him with another dictator, Napoleon the pig. Napoleon demonstrates how the other farm animals’ weakness can be dominated by strength, fear, and trickery, revealing one of George Orwell’s themes. In the beginning, just as Czar Nicholas II exploits his subjects, Farmer Jones treats …show more content…
Old Major helps the weak animals on the farm become strong by unifying them with a common vision promising a better life with dignity, a life of comfort and freedom. With the promise of a better life the animals overcome their fear and unite to overtake the farm. After the successful revolution, they have a new set of commandments to live by. They give themselves a new identity with a constitution to guide them. The pigs fill the power vacuum left by the departure of Farmer Jones and soon a power struggle breaks out amongst the pigs. Snowball believes in democracy and the constitution inspired by Old Major’s teachings. Napoleon has the strength to lead with the help of his secret police dogs and Squealer who has a gift of persuasion. Napoleon consolidates his power and overthrows Snowball when his “nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars come bounding into the barn” (67). Snowball is forced to leave the farm. This symbolizes Trotsky’s exile from Russia. Napoleon overthrows his enemies and instills fear into the farm animals using his police dogs just as Stalin did in Russia. The expulsion of Snowball and Squealer’s explanation for his departure unsettles the animal, but the farm animals continue to allow Napoleon to dominate them. When some of the animals begin to question Squealer’s explanation, Squealer brings up “ Surely, comrades you don’t want Jones back” (70). The animals fear the return of Farmer Jones above all

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