“It is not about assuring equality of opportunity but artificially that is, judicially enforcing equality of outcome” (Williams 69). John F. Kennedy first introduced the term affirmative action during the era of the Cold War and the civil rights movement. The term is defined as integration of different race, sex, and country of origin into universities and employment (Ana 30). The beginning of affirmative action started with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by the Johnson Administration. The Civil Rights Act allowed African Americans to attend desegregated schools and become eligible to vote. The 1971 Philadelphia Plan was implemented by the Nixon administration, which called for quota systems to ensure that a certain number of
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Students who receive at least 100 points are generally admitted. The part where it is considered discriminatory is the way the school assigns their point value. A perfect SAT score, which few achieve, is given twelve points by the officials. Being a minority will grant twenty points compared to the twelve points from a perfect SAT (Williams 71). This is before the committee views the applicant’s academics, extracurricular, and essay. Another example of how it is discriminatory towards non-minority races is the “select race/gender box” seen in college and work applications. It is contradictory when on the first page; colleges say that they do not base their decisions on the applicant’s status of race and gender. Through the application, the college would have a section that said that being African American, Hispanic, or Native American would grant them priority in admissions (Williams 70). One university even has a statement that reads “current gender” box. “Check here” they say, “and we’ll see what we can do for you” (Williams 70).
African Americans are even discriminated in historically black colleges where the majority of the students are African Americans. This is the same in public universities where the majority of the student body is white. Affirmative action contradicts its purpose of equal opportunity to all races by discriminating the race in which the policy was intended to help, which are African Americans. Even though historically black