A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior Essay

8129 Words Sep 30th, 2011 33 Pages
A Hierarchical

Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior: Integrating a Half Century of Behavior Research
Gary Yukl Angela Gordon University at Albany,
Tom Taber State University

of New York, Albany, NY

major problem leadership research and has been lack of agreement about which theory behavior categories are relevant and meaningful. It is difficult to integrate findings from five decades of research unless the many diverse leadership behaviors can be integrated in a parsimonious and meaningful conceptual An emerging solution is a framework. hierarchical taxonomy with three metacategories (task, relations, and change behavior). Confirmatory factor analysis of a behavior


major problem in research leadership has
…show more content…
Theories of transformational and charismatic leadership (e.g.,

Bass, 1985; Conger &

Kanungo, 1998; House, Arthur, 1993) include some change-oriented behaviors, and there is growing evidence that these behaviors are related to effectiveness of leaders (e.g., Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubramaniam, 1996). However, the high level of confounding among specific transformational
1977; Shamir, House, & behaviors makes it difficult to determine which ones are most important in a particular situation

(Yukl, 1999).
Evidence For The Three Metacategories The prior theories of leadership do not make a clear distinction among task, relations, and change behavior. The first evidence that changeoriented leadership is a distinct type of behavior comes from two studies conducted during the 1990s. In the first study, Ekvall and Arvonen

(1991) developed a behaviok description with items from earlier questionnaire questionnaires such as the LBDQ (Fleishman, 1953; Stogdill, Goode, & Day, 1962) and some

aspects of change-oriented The 36-item questionnaire was administered to subordinates who described 346 Swedish managers, 229 Finnish managers, and 123 American managers. Most of the leaders described were middle-level managers in private companies. There was strong support for a threefactor solution in each national sample, and the factors were labeled production centered,

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