Wolters Kluwer Health Inc.: Article Analysis

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Bakr et al Clin J Pain  Volume 00, Number 00, ’’ 2016
6 | www.clinicalpain.com Copyright r 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright r 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. was a significant decrease in CD4, CD8, and CD56 in group
M, compared with groups T and K and in CD3, CD8, and
CD56 in group T compared with group K at 90 minutes postoperatively. After 24 hours, there was a decrease in
CD4, and CD8 in group M in comparison to group T.
Furthermore, there was a decrease in CD4 and CD56 in groupsMand T in comparison to group K. So T group had less inhibitory effects on immune functions than M group, and ketorolac had the least immunosuppressive effect among the 3 drugs.
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Changes in CD8 Percentage in the 3 Studied Groups
Mean±SE
CD8 Group M (n=20) Group T (n=20) Group K (n=20) P1 P2 P3
Baseline 20.95±2.87 22.00±3.11 22.78±3.06 0.478 0.227 0.606
After 90 min 6.62±1.89 15.62±2.92 18.44±1.91 0.000* 0.000* 0.042*
After 24 h 6.56±1.72 9.46±1.50 9.65±3.78 0.048* 0.093 0.709
P4 0.001* 0.033* 0.001*
P5 0.001* 0.002* 0.001*
Baseline (immediately postoperative preanalgesic).
After 90 minutes and 24 hours (postoperative postanalgesic).
Data expressed as (mean±SE).
P1: comparison between group M and group T.
P2: comparison between group M and group K.
P3: comparison between group T and group K.
P4: comparison between baseline and after 90 minutes.
P5: comparison between baseline and after 24 hours.
*Significant P-value.
Group K indicates ketorolac; group M, morphine; group T, tramadol.
FIGURE 8. Changes in CD8 percentage in the 3 studied groups.
Group M: morphine; group T: tramadol; group K: ketorolac.
Baseline (immediately postoperative preanalgesic). After
90 minutes and 24 hours (postoperative postanalgesic). *, Statistically significant difference in comparison with baseline. ?,
Statistically significant difference between each 2 groups at
90 minutes.K, Statistically significant difference between M

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