What Does Hydroxyurea Work Treat Sickle Cell Anaemia? Essay
Problem: Suffering From Sickle Cell Anemia.
Sickle cell anaemia is a severe hereditary disease when there is an inadequate amount of erythrocytes (red blood cells) or haemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Haemoglobin beta alongside alpha globin makes haemoglobin which contains 146 amino acids. Haemoglobin beta makes up 98% of the total haemoglobin, whilst alpha globin makes the remaining 2%. Haemoglobin beta protein is produced by the gene HBB that is located in the multigene locus (the locus is on many alleles) of beta globin locus found on chromosome 11, specifically on the short arm position 15.5.
The HBA1 and the HBA2 are genes which provide instructions for the production of alpha-globin. These two alpha-globin genes are located close together in a region of chromosome 16 known as the alpha-globin locus. Mutations in the HBB gene can lead to the formation of haemoglobin S (the crescent shaped erythrocytes) which is the ultimate cause of sickle cell anaemia (see figure 1.11) , whilst mutation in the HBA1 and the HBA2 can lead to alpha thalassemia . The primary function of haemoglobin (HbA) is to transport O2 from the lungs to the tissues and then transport CO2 back from the tissues to the lungs.
When oxygen levels are low in the blood in sufferers of sickle cell anaemia, haemoglobin S (HbS) becomes more crescent-looking (see figure 1.11).The abnormal crescent shape of the red blood cells leads…