What Caused The Hundred Years War

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From the invasion of Northern France in 1339, to the surrender of Bordeaux in 1453, the Hundred Years’ War is considered one of the bloodiest wars of its time (Saunders, Turnbull 125, 142). The war lasted 116 years (125). The Hundred Years’ War illustrates turmoil in history where England tried to control France so that the English kings could expand their territorial holding in France. The Hundred Years War that started in 1337 was actually series of wars (Saunders, Turnbull 125). One of the main contributing factors to the war was when the last French king, Charles IV, died in 1328, leaving no direct heir to the throne (Allmad 1). Edward III, the King of England, claimed the French throne because his mother, Isabelle, was Charles’ sister …show more content…
First, there was the English success until 1429 and then the French recovery starting in 1453 (Carr 25). In 1340, the battle of Sluys began on June 24, at noon (Saunders, Turnbull 126). The English annihilated the French fleet by sinking or capturing 166 out 200 of their ships (126). The Battle of Sluys was a very important naval battle that allowed the England to control the English Channel for a generation, and allowed for the invasion of France and Victories (126). Edward III defeated the French army at Cregy in 1346, and in the next year captured Calais (Allmad 2). September 28, 1347 through 1354, a truce ended because of impact of the Black Death (Saunders, Turnbull 130). The English continued to be successful with John II, the King of France, being taken prisoner in 1356 (Allmad 2). For the next 10 years, the French countryside was raided at will by the English (131-132). Nominal peace happened between 1360 until 1368 ( Saunder, Turnbull 132). Dauphin Charles signed the Treaty of Bretigny, ransoming John II for 3 million gold crowns in 1360 (132). A formal truce happened between the two sides between 1375 until 1383 (133). The majority of the people died during this time starting with the Black Prince in 1376, Edward II in 1377, and Charles V in 1380 (133). The French started preparations for an invasion of England in 1386, but stopped when the the English won in the battle of Margate in 1387 (133). Another truce took …show more content…
A truce lasted until 1415 and afterward was marked by intermittent warfare (133). Henry V declared war on Charles VI on April 1415 (134). England continued to be the victor with Dauphin Charles slaying John when he appeared for negotiation (136). Henry V forced Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Troyes May 21, 1420, and Charles was disowned as heir to the French throne and Henry V replaced him (136). He became ruler of France on June 2, 1420, and died of dysentery at Blois on August 31,1422 (136). Saunders and Turnbull stated in their book Wars That Changed History: Some of the World’s Greatest Conflicts that “French resistance to the English grew, although Duke John waged a skillful defense of the English holding in France until his Death on September 14, 1435” (139). The English and French opened diplomatic talks in 1435 with the English refused to withdraw claims to the French throne insisting on the marriage between King Henry VI and the daughter of Charles VII (139, 140). The English broke off negotiations with France with one of their French Raids (140). When the English returned, Burgundy had switched sides and Philip agreed to recognize Charles VII as King of France in 1435 (140). In the same year, loyal Parisians to Charles VII allowed besiegers to enter the city and ultimately the English signed a five year truce at the city of

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