“The pattern of alliances and agreements formed in Europe in the years 1879-1907 was shaped primarily by Germany’s concerns about its security’
Germany became a formidable power in Europe after its unification in 1871. This power shift meant that Germany was a key player in the international politics of the time. With multiple crises occurring in the region, and tensions between countries growing, needs for alliances and agreements grew. The Dual Alliance, Three Emperors Alliance, Triple Alliance, Mediterranean Agreement, Reinsurance Treaty, Franco-Russian Alliance, Entente Cordiale and Anglo-Russian Entente were the major diplomatic policies formed during 1879-1900. By focusing on the threats Germany faced and how the alliances
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The Three Emperors Alliance was an extension of the League of the same name, established in 1873. The Dual Alliance signed in 1879 had encouraged what Bismarck had hoped: Russia was practically given a warning, and returned to negotiations in 1880, signing an alliance with Austria Hungary and Germany in 1881. Through this alliance, Russia was assured that the Straits would be closed to all warships, and would be supported in a war against Turkey. Austria was able to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, with no further changes to be made to the Ottoman Empire without all three powers permission. All countries gained from the treaty, but because it did not provide a lasting solution to any problems, its main function was to diffuse tensions between Russia and Austria. The reason that such an alliance was created, while not in the face of an immediate threat, was because Bismarck had realised that Russian defeat of Austria would have severe consequences for Germany. It would result in Russia expanding, increasing the possible sandwiching of Germany by France and Russia, by spreading further along Germany’s borders. Again, Bismarck had ensured German security by reducing tensions in Europe that could have damaged the nation, through an alliance, which would be renewed in 1884.
However, Germany was still concerned about Russian desires for the Straits, and Bismarck began to focus on