What Is VOXEL-Based Methodology?

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VOXEL BASED MORPHOMETRY: APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE USING ADNI DATA

• ABSTRACT
• INTRODUCTION
• MRI PROCESSING
• VOXEL BASED MORPHOMETRY o What is a voxel o VBM methodology
• SPM o Preprocessing o Statistical Analysis
• ADNI o Database
• CONCLUSION
• References

ABSTRACT
The curiosity to look into the brain has always interested researchers. As the brain grows in size its functioning improves and at a later age (old age) it also deteriotes.MRI helps in identifying different brain conditions with varying levels of cognition. The structural changes of brain are vital factors in its identification in during a serial imaging follow up. The pathological changes in the brain can be detected by
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Recently SPM12 has been launched but in this paper we will be using SPM8 for our discussions.
PREPROCESSING
It involves the alignment of the image in the correct way. The skull is the rigid body while the brain can move within it (Ashburner, 2009). Hence rigid body registration is realistic standard for bringing in line the various images of a subject. The variations in the anatomy of different subjects are treated as noise.
STATISTICAL INFERENCE
Each voxel is tested statistically. Post alignment each voxel in one image is compared with the voxel in another image. The design is specified in such a manner that there is no over or under fitting of the matrix.
ADNI DATASET
ADNI is an ongoing longitudinal multicenter study .It is designed to develop clinical imaging genetic and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
A cohort of 200 elderly control subjects, 200 MCI patients, and 400 AD patients,$67 million funding from National Institute on Aging,13 pharmaceutical companies and also Foundation for the National Institutes of
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ADNI is a public–private partnership started way back in 2004.The primary focus of ADNI has been the development of diagnostic biomarkers for the early detection of AD and development of prognostic biomarkers that would be used to monitor disease progression .The initial ADNI was projected to run for 5 years but with new funding pouring in to fight against AD, it has entered into ADNI 2.
LONI data archive (LDA) is an automated system wherein researchers can upload data from the 57 ADNI sites. It also ensures quality control of images before removing them from quarantine status and makes them available for download, manage preprocessing, post processing of images and their linkage to associated metadata, support search functions, and manage user access and approval.
To collect serial information, every 6 months,
On the cognitive performance
Brain structural and metabolic changes
Biochemical changes in blood, CSF, and urine
Conclusion
In brief it can be said that with the usage of VBM to fMRI, the benefits of evaluating the brain atrophy and also the screening for the deterioration of the memory can be immense. It can benefit the diagnosis of the early changes in cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Proper and right implementation of this tool called VBM will facilitate the better understanding of neurological disease.

The VBM

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