Visualization, Predicting, Visualizing, Schemata, And Reading Strategies

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Apart from the skimming and scanning reading strategies, there are other ones the reader has to use too in order to get a better comprehension of the text. On the one hand, we have the strategies which are part of the top down approach: inferring, making connections, predicting, visualizing, schemata, and context clues. The first strategy known as inferring refers to the process of “reading between the lines” (Moore, n./d.); this process basically consists on using the information available in a text in order to guess the information that is not explicitly expressed (Kispal, 2008); a good example of inferring is the one suggested by Lofthouse (n./d.) in which the reader reads: the waves rushed up around his legs and he could feel the coarse …show more content…
4), and as Nelson (2005) stated, there are four main steps students need to follow in order to put into practice this strategy, the first one cosists on the teacher modelling the way it has to be done, then, with all the group, the teacher has to practice the visualizing strategy with a text; after that, the students by themselves need to practice it, and at the end, they need to apply it in real reading situations; an activity which allow the students to make the use of this strategy is asking them to draw the characters or the setting from the story they just read (Nelson, 2005). The fifth strategy of the top down processing is schemata, which consists on students activating “two distinct areas of prior knowledge as they construct meaning: prior knowledge of the topic and prior knowledge of text structure” (Coiro & Dobler, 2007) in order to increase their comprehension of the text; this particular strategy is considered done when, before starting reading, students try to make sense out of what they are going to read by seeing how it fits with what they already know (TeacherVision, …show more content…
A good way to make this practice possible is by the use of reading activities, which are “ instructional activities you use for helping learners comprehend a particular text also model the way effective readers read” (Gibbons, 2002, p. 84). A good way in order to provide this reading activities with a particular text is by dividing it into three main stages: Before Reading, During Reading, and After Reading (Gibbons, 2002, p. 84). The before reading activities occur at, as their name mentions, before reading, and they are done with the purpose of prepare the students for the linguistic forms or any difficulties they will deal with during the text and to activate their prior knowledge (Gibbons, 2002). Some activities of this stage are predicting from words, which consists on showing the students a word from the text in order to make them predict what the text is going to be about; predicting from title or first sentence, during this activity, the teacher writes the title or first sentence of the text they are going to read on the board in order to make predictions about what it is going to be about; predicting from a key illustration, which is basically show the students a illustration related to the text in order to get them thinking about what the topic will be read; sequencing illustrations, reader questions, storytelling,

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