Atherosclerosis: The Double Bonds Of Our Body

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• Atherosclerosis is a condition in which cholesterol, calcium and other substances build up in body arteries, blocking the blood flow.
• Visceral Fat is fat around organs. Its function is to insulate and protect organs.
• Subcutaneous Fat is under the skin. This fat protects and insulate our body. Fat (visceral and subcutaneous) stores energy.
• Omega-3 fatty acids have the first double bond on the third carbon counting from the carbon in the methyl end. These are essential fatty acids (our body can’t produce them). Alpha-linolenic is an example of omega-3 fatty acid.
• Omega-6 fatty acids have the first double bond on the sixth carbon counting from the carbon in the methyl end. These are essential fatty acids, because our body cannot produce
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Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double bond between carbon atoms, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds.
Most Trans fatty acids are produced by hydrogenation (breaking the double bond and adding hydrogen) of unsaturated fatty acids. This process will straighten the fatty acids, and making the product solid. Margarine and shortenings are produced by hydrogenation of vegetable oils, they are solid and high in Trans fats.

3.
Monounsaturated fat – olive oil, peanut oil
Omega-3 fatty acid – walnut oil, flaxseed oil
Omega-6 fatty acids – seeds, nuts, corn oil
Cholesterol –meat, milk

4.
LDL (low density lipoproteins) contains more than 50% cholesterol. Some white blood cells bind and ingest LDL, releasing cholesterol as a result. These white blood cells can be buried in blood vessel walls due to previous injury. Cholesterol can accumulate over time and narrows the artery.

5.
(a) The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend:
• total fat intake to be 20 – 35% of calories for adults
• Saturated fat should be no more than 10% calories
• cholesterol intake less than 300mg/day
• Keep trans fat as low as possible This recommendation translates to these Daily Values for fat:
• 65g of total
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If diet is low in protein, body own proteins can be broken down to satisfy the organism needs for synthesis of hormones or enzymes to regulate body functions. This process will result in loss of body tissue. If there is no essential amino acid which can be used, the new protein synthesis will stop and the well-being of the organism will be influence by missing hormones, enzymes, antibodies…

9.
There are many different types of vegetarian diet. Some allow the consumption of animal products like milk, cheese or eggs. Some are very specific, allowing only the consumption of fruits and nuts. Vegetarian diet can be low in the nutrient found in red meat (zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids).

10.
Kwashiorkor
Kwashiorkor is caused by severe protein deficiency.
Symptoms:
• Swelling of body tissue (feet and legs), bloated belly
• Stunted weight and height
• Susceptibility to infection
• Dry, flaky skin, change in skin color
Marasmus
Marasmus is caused by severe calorie and protein deficiency. After all far is used up, the body use muscle tissue to cover its energy needs.
Symptoms:
• Slow or stopped growth
• Slow metabolism, low body temperature
• Frail, wrinkled body
• Brain development in children is stunt, resulting in learning disabilities
• Can be in adults with cancer, or

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