Value Orientation Method Case Study

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Florence Rockwood Kluckhohn was a lecturer on Sociology in the laboratory of Social Relations at Harvard University in 1953. Kluckhohn was interested in identifying specific patterns of behavior that are influenced by culture. She was also interested in the study of values, not as good or bad but in terms of how beliefs shape and define our world.

The Value Orientation Method (VOM) proposes that all human societies must answer a limited number of universal problems, that the value-based solutions are limited in number and universally known, but that different cultures have different preferences among them. It provides a way to understand core cultural differences related to five basic human concerns, or orientations. The method has been used widely in cross-cultural situations, including in higher education, health services, and conflict resolution.

The five basic human concerns or orientations which are discussed Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Model are the main focus of their work. The five basic human concerns include: people and nature, time dimension, human nature, activity and social relations.

People and Nature.

Man over nature: Sees man as
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The method has been used widely in cross-cultural situations, including in higher education, health services, and conflict resolution. A 16-question oral survey is available and can be used for formal research about cultural differences or informally in training to help people become aware of and work with cultural differences at the individual and institutional levels. In the 1940s, anthropologists Florence and Clyde Kluckhohn and Frederick Strodtbeck, with the Harvard Values Project, began an exploration of the fundamental values held by different cultures. They hypothesized

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