Urban Poverty And Racism

749 Words 3 Pages
The lives of American Americans have been shaped in many ways especially the community. In American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass by Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton and The African American Urban Experience: Perspective from the Colonial Period to the Present by Joe Trotter, Earl Lewis, and Tera Hunter used several scholars and data to understand urban poverty and segregation experienced by African Americans. However, both readings explore the different interpretations of urban poverty and segregation. For instance, American Apartheid is more about analyzing poverty and segregation within the context of the economically consequences it caused for American Americans. While, the African American Urban Experience …show more content…
Segregation “was achieved by a conjunction of racist attitudes, private behaviors, and institutional practices that disenfranchised blacks from urban housing markets and led to the creation of the ghetto” (Massey and Denton 1993:83). It was a way to constraint African Americans to areas that were far away from those with status, class, and power. Segregation led to discrimination in economic opportunities, housing, and education attain. However, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 tried to limit some of the discrimination associated with segregation. It was discovered that even a “rising economic status had little or no effect on the level of segregation that blacks experience” (Massey and Denton 1993:87). The authors imply that “black segregation would remain a universal high” (Massey and Denton 1993:88). The problem in the continuing causes in Segregation is that even though that the Fair Housing act was place many realtors still discriminate against blacks “through a series of ruses, lies, and deceptions, makes it hard for them to learn about, inspect, rent, or purchase homes in white neighborhoods” (Massey and Denton 1993:97). Segregation and …show more content…
Trotter et al., argue that class is more important than race but it’s still a factor when mentioning the labor market. In a chapter, called “Race, Class, and Space: An Examination of Underclass notions in the Steel and Motor Cities” by Karen J. Gibson argues “that the underclass suffer the compound effects of race and class” (Trotter et al. 2010:188). Gibson implies that the black middle class have yet to make it because they still experience discrimination unlike what Massey and Denton reported in their research it’s more than housing discrimination. In addition, she uses Wilson theory that the “black middle class neighborhood also falls behind their white “counterparts” in terms of employment. Middle class African Americans who live in neighborhoods that are “conductive to employment” and do not lack education or experience continue to face barriers in the labor market” (Trotter et al. 2010:188). Gibson argument becomes weak when pertaining to segregation because it seems she is arguing that it’s not structural; however, her research as presented that it is structural. However, the argument also leds to an understanding that space and social outcome is not correlated when it comes to blacks and whites discrimination will still

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