Unitarian Movement Outline
a) Thomas Paine’s book The Age of Reason (1794) said that churches were set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.
i) Paine promoted the liberal doctrines of Deism ii) Deists relied on reason rather than revelation, science rather than Bible, and they denied the Christ’s divinity and believed in a Supreme Being who created the universe and provided humans with capacity for moral behavior
b) Deism helped inspire the Unitarian faith, began to gather in NE at end of 18th century
i) Unitarians believed that God existed in one person, and not in the Trinity. ii) The Unitarian movement appealed mostly to intellectuals (ex: Ralph Waldo Emerson)
c) Second Great Awakening started in the 1800s
i) The …show more content…
were more interested in practical gadgets than in pure science
i) Nathaniel Bowditch (1733-1838) wrote on practical navigation and the oceanographer Matthew F. Maury (1806-1873) on ocean winds and currents ii) Am. were best known for borrowing and adapting the finds of Europeans.
b) In 1840s, Am doctors and scientists successfully employed laughing gas and ether as anesthetics
i) People everywhere were sick and had low life expectancy (40 years)
11) Artistic Achievements
a) Ams were continuing to imitate European models of art and painting
i) A Greek revival came between 1820 and 1850 of architecture in America ii) Some skillful painters were Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828 from RI) and Willson Peale (1741-1827 from Maryland) and John Trumbull (1756-1843)
b) “Dixie” (adopted by the Confederates as their battle hymn) was written in 1859 in NY
12) Blossoming of a National Literature
a) Much of the reading matter was imported or plagiarized from Britain
b) Am. lit received a strong boost from nationalism that followed the War of Independence and the War of 1812
i) Washington Irving (1783-1859) born in NY, was the first Am to win a international recognition as a literacy figure. He wrote Knickerbocker’s History of New York and The Sketch …show more content…
i) Transcendentalists rejected the theory that all knowledge comes to the mind through the senses, and that every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him or her in direct touch with God ii) Closely associated is the commitment to self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline
b) Best known transcendentalists was Ralph Waldo Emerson (born in Boston, 1803-1882)
i) Urged Am writers to throw off European traditions and to search into the riches of their own backyards. ii) He was also known for “The American Scholar” which was a intellectual declaration of independence.
c) Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist. He condemned the gov’t for slavery
i) He believed that he should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time for a pursuit of truth through study and meditation.
14) Growing Literacy Lights
a) Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was one of the most popular poets ever produced in America.
b) A Quaker, John Greenleaf Wittier (1807-1862) was vastly more important in influencing social