Essay about Types of DNA Technology

1364 Words Apr 6th, 2014 6 Pages
DNA Technology: Biotechnology
1) Selective breeding
2) Genetic engineering – humans tinker with organisms genes
a. Cloning –take haploid cel and replace with a diploid nucleus (comes from organism whos traits you want to duplicate.
b. Recombinant DNA – DNA from 2 or more sources. Done by Euk cells during Meiosis. Always from same molecule.
3) Biologists first started doing recombinant DNA from a prok cell and combined it with another prok cell because it was easier.
4) DNA from a euk cell and combine it with DNA from a prok cell
Features of bacteria that make them useful subjects for recombinant DNA technicians:
1) Short generation time. Divide fast
2) Easy uptake of DNA from environment (transport from environment)
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ii. Inhibin – prevents FSH secretion and regulates spermatogenesis. Androgens stimulate inhibin production in males. iii. Androgen binding Proteins – stimulates spermatogenesis by increasing testosterone in the semineferous tubules.
In Females:
Hypothalmus -> GnRH -> Anterior Pituitary gland -> FSH + LH -> follicle cells of ovaries -> ovulation of leftovers follicle cells-> creation of the corpus luteum ->
In Males: Hypothalamus -> GnRH pituitary gland -> FSH +LH -> Intersitital cells of Leydig -> testosterone -> spermatogeneiss ->
Components of Semen
1) Epididymis – 5% sperm cells
2) Cowpers gland – 5% alkaline mucus (used in delivery)
3) Seminal vesicle fluid – 60%
a. Fructose – (nutrition) powers mitochondria in a sperm cell
b. Fibrinogen – (delivery) Used to clot semen
c. Prostaglandins – used for smooth muscle contractions.
4) Prostate Gland – (20-30%)
a. seminal plasmin used as an antibiotic.
b. Protection
c. Citric acid + absorbic acid used for nutrition
d. Thromin like – protein used to convert fibrinogen into fibrin (delivery)
How an Erection works:
1) Vasodilation of penile arteries (increased blood flow into penis smooth muscle)
2) Rise of nitric oxide which promotes artery enlargement ( Viagra destroys enzymes that destroys nitric oxide)
Female Reproductive System:
Menarche: - The first cycle.
I) Hypothalamus starts to make tons of GnRH
II) The slow pulse rate of GnRH stimulates follicles in ovaries
a. Eggs

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