Traumatic Brain Injury Essay

1266 Words Dec 20th, 2007 6 Pages
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury, also called acquired brain injury or simply head injury, is a result of a sudden blow to the head when an external force is applied causing a disruption of the physiological stability of the brain locally. It can also occur when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue and when elevation in the intracranial pressure occurs and potentially dramatic changes in the blood flow within and to the brain. These changes may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness. Traumatic brain injury is a nondegenerative, noncongential defect in which there may be permanent or temporary impairments to cognition, physical, and psychosocial functions. Various terms are used to …show more content…
They increase the morbidity and mortality after head trauma. The most common is increased cranial pressure. Hypoxemia, increased carbon dioxide, or systemic hypotension may precipitate increased ICP. Damage to the brain tissue occurs primarily because the delivery of oxygen and glucose is interrupted. Brain injuries are described as mild, moderate, or severe. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to determine the severity of a brain injury, within the first 48 hours. The GCS determines eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The highest score that can be obtained is 15. As follows, is the range for which each are classified:
• Mild traumatic brain injury: 13-15 and a loss of consciousness
• Moderate traumatic brain injury: 9-12 with a period of loss of consciousness for up to six hours and may be accompanied by other systemic injuries
• Severe traumatic brain injury: 3-8 and a loss of consciousness for more than six hours

Another tool that is used is the Ranchos Los Amigos scale of cognitive functioning and measures the severity of cognitive function. As follows, is the levels in which each is classified:
• Level I = No response
• Level II = Generalized response
• Level III = Localized response
• Level IV = Confused-agitated
• Level V = Confused-inappropriate
• Level VI = Confused-appropriate
• Level VII = Automatic-appropriate
• Level VIII = Purposeful-appropriate

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