Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles, Followers' Positive and Negative Emotions, and Performance in German Nonprofit Orchestras

6933 Words 28 Pages
Transformational and
Transactional Leadership
Styles, Followers’ Positive and Negative Emotions, and
Performance in German
Nonprofit Orchestras
Jens Rowold, Anette Rohmann
Although the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm has received increased attention from the research community over the past two decades, the nonprofit sector has been largely neglected. This study provides information about the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles in the domain of German nonprofit orchestras, while exploring the role of emotions within these leadership styles. We examined musicians’ perceptions of their orchestra conductors’ leadership behaviors and related those behaviors to performance.
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The positive relationship between transformational leadership and outcome criteria varied in different contexts (Pawar and Eastman, 1997). For example, in their metaanalysis, Lowe, Kroeck, and Sivasubramaniam (1996) found that transformational leadership was associated more strongly with subjective performance indicators in public organizations (for example, government agencies) than in private organizations (for example, industry). Moreover, cross-cultural research found that the effectiveness of transformational leadership varied for different cultural contexts (Walumbwa and Lawler, 2003). This line of research hints at the possibility that organizational or cultural contexts moderate the relationship between leadership and outcome criteria.

Nonprofit Management & Leadership

DOI: 10.1002/nml

T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L

AND

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

The past several years have produced a growing body of theoretical work concerning leadership in nonprofit contexts (Boerner,
2004; Boerner and Gebert, 2005; Dym and Hutson, 2005; Riggio and
Smith Orr, 2004). Given this interest, we set out to learn more about the effectiveness of leadership styles in that area. While Lowe,
Kroeck, and Sivasubramaniam’s meta-analysis (1996) helped to expand the knowledge about differences in the effectiveness of transformational

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