The Urban Environment: Traffic congestion in cities is a problem throughout the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of one official initiative undertaken to tackle this issue.
Today traffic congestion has become one of the major issues that exert an influence on towns and cities in economically developed countries. Chen and Hai (2012,para1) explains that congestion takes place when the road space is overfilled by car users and speed of the traffic lessens, moreover, it is regarded as a potential reason for air pollution or even climate change. One possible approach is considered to be the implementation of road pricing policy, which would contribute to the decrease of traffic congestion rates, improvement of air
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Prud’homme & Bocarejo (2005, 13) postulate that an actual implementation of the London Congestion Charge might be very expensive, and the government’s payments would exceed possible beneficial outcomes. In this sense, it could be argued that the scheme seems not to be substantial in terms of economical validity and might be costly for running. Secondly, it has often been suggested that traffic rates have decreased since the implementation of LCC scheme. Santos, Kenneth and Noll (2008, 189) imply that although invalid discrepancies between predicted and real results have occurred, there was a gradual increase in the average traffic rate at the beginning, whereas the total number of cars entering and leaving the charging area decreased. To clarify, Leape (2006, 164) highlights that before the scheme was applied, the expected outcome was demonstrated in ROCOL report (2000, chap.5, p.76) as a growth in traffic pace in the morning and afternoon from 9.3 to 11.2 mph and from 9.9 to 11.2 mph respectively in comparison to the 1980s. However, according to the TfL’s sixth annual report, the decrease in the traffic congestion rates could be estimated as almost 30 percent, substantially higher than it used to be during the first years of implementation. Also Leape (2006, 165) subscribe to the idea that the