Three Eras Of Ancient China

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China is one of the oldest civilizations in the world and has been the largest and most advanced economy for much of recorded history. China’s ancient history is divided into three eras: Pre-Imperial era (ca. 10,000 – 221BC), Early Imperial era (221BC – 960AD) and Late Imperial era (960 – 1911AD).
During the Pre-Imperial era, the tribes living around the Yellow River area, were practicing agriculture. The earliest silk remains date to the early third millennium BC. By the third millennium BC, stratified bronze-age societies had emerged. A merchant class dominated during the Warring States Period, resulting in increased trade. The emperors established an intricate bureaucracy, using it to wage imperial wars, build large temples and perform public
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The states were centralized, although local officials still maintained limited autonomy. During this period, self-sufficient peasant farmers and artisans ruled the economy. Commerce was relatively frequent, increasing after the Han Dynasty with the development of the Silk Road. By 221BC, the state of Qin unified China, by embracing reform more than any other state. Its Emperor Qin Shihuang was the first emperor in China. He built the Great Wall and set consistent standards of government. The Han Dynasty is remembered as the first of China’s Golden Ages. With a population of 58 million, it was one of the most powerful and populous nations on earth, exceeding the Roman Empire. During this period, large-scale enterprises emerged, and technological innovations such as the wheelbarrow, paper and the seismograph were invented. The Silk Road was opened up, allowing trade between China and its western regions to flourish. Confucius’s philosophy, and Taoism and its values gained prominence in China during the Han Dynasty. However, the economy was crippled by an uprising and did not recover until the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty was a further golden age. A series of strong rulers, including a woman, ruled China efficiently and expanded the Tang Empire to the point that it rivalled the later Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. The state’s withdrawal encouraged economic growth and helped China’s economy to develop into the mercantilism of the Song and Ming Dynasties in the next

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