Theories of the Etiology of Addiction Essay

2135 Words 9 Pages
Certain models and theories regarding addiction have a tremendously valuable impact con society’s reaction toward addiction. There are certain aspects of each theory which are very important in the treatment of addiction. Not all addicts and alcoholics fit into the specific criteria of one theory or model so it is beneficial for Chemical Dependency Counselors to have an in depth understanding of various theories to draw from. Most theories about addiction fail to provide a comprehensive account of chemical abuse, dependence or addiction. There is truth and speculation to every theory. It is important for Chemical Dependency Counselors to continue to research and critique theories because it initiates the creation of new theories. For the …show more content…
The pre-alcoholic then enters the prodromal phase (which is the signaling disease stage). Later the alcoholic progresses to the third phase which is the crucial phase. According to Jellinek, this stage can e identified by loss of control which is set off via chain reaction as the alcoholic takes his first drink. The final stage is the chronic phase which is marked by physical changes including tolerance dropping, tremors developing, etc… Jellinek emphasizes that alcoholics do not have to go through all four phases before successful treatment can occur. Jellinek went on to formulate categories of alcoholism. He coined the “Alpha Alcoholic” which represents a purely psychological dependence on alcohol; the “Beta Alcoholic” which is indicative of physical symptoms developed as a result of alcohol use (cirrhosis or gastritis). “Gamma Alcoholics” which are marked by a change in tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and loss of control (this is the category where the alcoholic progresses from psychological to physical dependence); the “Delta Alcoholic” where psychological and physical dependency is present yet there is not a lack of control; and finally, the “Epsilon Alcoholic” which Jellinek considered periodic alcoholism because it is characterized by binge drinking. All of these types of alcoholism formulated what society knows today as the various species in the Disease Model of Alcoholism and Addiction (Kinney, 2009).
“After the successful repeal of Prohibition

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