Theories Of Social And Emotional Learning

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The Department for Children, Schools and Families have recognised that Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) are the building blocks for future success in life for children, subsequently the Early Years Foundations Stage if required to make provisions for this (DfCSF, 2008). Similarly the Department for Education have outlined a National Curriculum where ‘All schools should make provisions for personal social health and Economic education (PSHE), drawing on good practice’, likewise identifying a need for the development of SEL in schools (National Curriculum, 2013).
There are multiple theories that propose how SEL occurs. Although Neurological, Psychological and Social theories imply the learning occurs in different ways, each theory ultimately
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He proposes that as a child develops, the interaction within certain environments becomes more complex. These complex interactions affect how the child matures physically and cognitively consequently affecting their neurological development (Paquette, D. and Ryan, J. 2001).
However Bronfenbrenner also acknowledged the Nurture argument in his theory, consequently supporting the social theory of Social and Emotion Learning. He proposed there are four sets of factors influencing a child. From the innermost influential, the Microsystem represents the immediate family; the Mesosystem represents the broader surroundings; the Exosystem represents the indirect human influences and the outermost Macrosystem representing broad systems and values (1979). These are all social influences, which could affect the way a child develops socially and
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The Department for Education recognise that children who come from an impoverished background tend to fall behind the attainment of children from more wealthy backgrounds. As a result of these findings ‘Pupil Premium funding was introduced to raise the attainment of disadvantaged pupils of all abilities and to close the gaps between them and their peers’ (DfE, 2014). However, when assessed Ofsted found that in 2015 the widest areas of attainment were in ‘literacy, particularly reading, and mathematics’ (Ofsted, 2016). Ofsted then went on to recommend, to close the gap between disadvantaged children and their peers was that the children needed to understand that ‘everyone has something to say – ideas, views and opinions are what makes us unique’ and that these children lacked in personal social and emotional development (Ofsted, 2016). Reasons for poverty in England may include caring responsibilities, however may also include suffering from a health condition or disability (Child Poverty Action Group, 2016). If a parent of a child is unable to work because of personal health reasons, mental or physical, the economic impact is likely to affect the amount of social and emotional development a child may make. ‘Lower household income and educational attainment were associated with greater amounts of negativity in mothers interactions with their children’ (Centre

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