Theories Of Muslimness

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Theories of Muslimness in the history of Muslim thought:

The problem of Muslimness and accusation of unbelief was one of early Islamic debates in the history of Islam that began from the 8th and 9th centuries CE onwards.(3) The problem of "Muslimness" is one of the most important issues in Islam that effected in view of the Muslim to each other and brought the segregation and various guidelines for each Islamic group. In this regard, Islamic sects perceive the inherent superiority for their followers. They also might give less significant to other sect that do not think or act based on their criteria and even exclude other Muslim opponent from the community of Islam. In the following chapter, my intention is to elaborate the definition of
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The Qur’an threatens the unbelievers to Hell on the Day of Judgment as the punishment from God.(5) In the surah 9:28, Qur’an aware Muslims that the polytheists are unclean.
There are different views about believers and unbelievers between various branches of Islam.
In the Arab culture/literature there are some kinds of kafir: the first one is the person who neither recognize God and know Him, nor appreciated Him (al-inkār); the second one is the person who recognizes God but cannot acknowledge Him (al-d̲j̲uḥūd). The next category is the person who appreciates God with words but cannot recognize Him at heart (al-nifāḳ). The last one is the person who both recognize God and appreciate Him by words but he is still remaining unbeliever (al-muʿānada).(6)

In this category, Kharidjis and Ibadis have more dogmatic view, while Murji’a have the most tolerant view than
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In contrast to this view, Murji’a believe that all of the Ahl al-Ḳibla, are believers even they commit the mortal sin. While, Mu’tazilite consider the Muslim who commit the mortal sin as a rejected (fāsiḳ).(5) according to the view of Islamic scholars, the accusation on unbelief make legal limitation for non-Muslim who live in the Islamic countries.

In Islam there are two kinds of unbelief that it make the various type of Unbelievers: the original unbelief (kufr al-asliyyah) and apostasy (irtidad). The first one belongs to those who had not believed in Islam during their life. This group includes Jewish and Christians that are known as Ahl al-Kitab; they are more leniently than other kuffar. The original unbeliever (kafar al-asliyyah) is divided into two kinds: kafar dhimmi and kafar harbi.
Kafar dhimmi are those Jews and Christians who live in Islamic states and entitled to pay specific tax (jizya) in order to be safe in Islamic lands; they also do not have cooperation in war against Muslims.
Kafar harbi is referred to those who are not Muslims while they might live under the protection of the Muslim state. This group does not accept the pact of dhimmeh and does not pay jizya whether they are in war against Muslim or

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