The Zeeman Effect Essay

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The experiment is an investigation about the Zeeman Effect in an atomic Cadmium lamp. The part of the spectrum observed will be the 645nm (red) emission line.
Electrons occupy energy levels within an atom when a photon of energy hf is absorbed by an electron in the n=1 level and if the energy is such that the electron is excited and ascends to the n=2 level after some time the electron will then descend back to the n=1 level and a photon of hf will then be emitted again. Each atom has its own unique absorption and emission spectrum this is because each atom has different energy levels and therefore is used to identify atoms in stars.
When no magnetic field is applied the electrons in energy states or orbitals within the Cadmium atom are governed by the unique set of quantum numbers associated with an orbital these sets are different for each orbital. There are three different quantum numbers that an orbital can be represented with these are ml, l, and n. Where ml is the magnetic quantum number it can take any value between l and –l for example if l = 2 then ml would be any integer between said value such as -2,-1, 0, 1, 2, l is the azimuthal quantum number and can be represented by any integer number between 0 and n-1, and
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The zeeman effect lead to the discovery of magnetic fields coming from sunspots , these are areas of the sun which are darker than other areas of the sun and a bit cooler[9]. The Zeeman effect is now used today to make something called magnetograms which are used to find the different strengths of magnetic flux density in the sun.[8]Magnetic fields are very important in formation of a star as “Magnetic fields can drive turbulence, which can allow small pockets of a gas cloud to collapse and form stars. Strong fields can alternately prevent large clouds from collapsing by providing a force to combat the pull of

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