The graphs above demonstrate that there is a value, but theoretically this value should be zero. As demonstrated in Table 1, every trial lost momentum. As the formula for momentum is and the mass remained constant, the velocity must be the responsible factor. Additionally, the only the magnitude of is necessary to observe adherence to the conservation law. The conservation law states that should be equal to zero, and as this wasn’t observed in any trial, it can be said that the conservation law was ineffective in this system. This is also replicated in the loss of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is being lost in the form of sound as the collision takes place. However, kinetic energy is a scalar quantity, therefore the difference between the initial kinetic energy and the final kinetic energy is the actual value of ∆KE. This is calculated by simply subtracting the initial value from the final value; vector diagrams are not required. As both of the energy and momentum conservation laws were shown to be ineffective in this closed system, it was likely that external forces acted upon the pucks, effectively creating a physical system (a system with external forces i.e. analysing a part of the universe).

Furthermore, Newton’s Third Law was also shown to be ineffective in this closed system. The forces acting upon Puck A and Puck B were not equal and opposite, as the law states they should be. This is likely due to some incorrect measurements discussed in the systematic…