The Three Eras Of Implementing Community Policing In Police Departments

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When discussing changing a stigma by implementing community policing, one must ask what is community policing? Miller, Hess, and Orthmann (2014) states, it is a philosophy or orientation that emphasizes working proactively with citizens to reduce fear, solve crime-related problems, and prevent crime. Community policing is a positive change for the community and for law enforcement that serves the community. An important concept to always remember is that the police are the community, and the community are the police (Miller et al., 2014). To successfully integrate this into police departments, we must examine several factors that have made police departments what they are today, what are ways to implement this new form of policing without resistance …show more content…
Policing has changed over time to become what it is today. There are three eras of policing, the political era (1840-1930), the reform era (1930-1980), and the community era (1980- present). During the political era, police officers had strong ties to the community because they lived in the communities they served and they focused on foot patrol (Miller et al., 2014). They knew who they served and protected because they were out with the same people every day. Police chiefs were appointed politically, and because of this they wanted to keep those in power that appointed them (Miller et al., 2014). During this time, there was a lot of corruption which led to the next era of policing. The reform era of policing is when August Vollmer introduced radios in patrol cars, fingerprinting, bike patrols, and police schooling to name a few (Miller et al., 2014). The downfall to this era was law enforcement became distant from the community they served. Foot patrols became non-existent and motorized patrol was at the forefront of how officers were seen by the community. This type of policing led to a dissatisfaction with law enforcement and the community and with the criminal justice system, thus the third era of policing was born. The community era of policing focuses on the support of the communities that each department serves. This era of policing has a proactive stance in trying to anticipate the problems before they happen and coming up with …show more content…
One way for law enforcement to get to know the community they serve is to do regular foot patrols within their beats. Getting out of patrol units and talking with the citizens lets them know who you are and that you are there for them. Getting officers out of their patrol units reduces isolation and makes it easier for community members to interact with law enforcement (Smith, 1984). There have been several studies done in different cities across the United States that show that foot patrol was effective and positive in the communities (Miller et al., 2014). Foot Patrol operations have shown that it can reduce fear of crime, reduce crime rate in areas, and shed a positive light on law enforcement (Miller et al., 2014). These types of operations work well with officers who are service oriented and want to make a difference in the community that they serve. In the Eastern District of Baltimore officers who were put on foot patrol found it as a form of punishment rather than embrace it and get to know they people in that area (Moskos, 2008). The presence of an officer usually deters crime. While reading “Cop in the Hood,” Moskos (2008) pointed out that if there were illegal activities going on when a lookout saw police the activity ceased until law enforcement was gone. If the police presence was there all the time not just briefly, then this could potentially drive the crime out of the area because drug dealers do not want to be caught. This would serve as more of

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