The Three Dimensional Model Of Discourse Fairclough

Improved Essays
Critical discourse analysis is a, somehow, new field in linguisticstics. Many scholars have worked on developing this new field which is really useful in people’s everyday life. Critical analysis of media discourse has been worked by Van Dijk (1988). He considered a comprehensive analysis of both the textual and structural level of media discourse and analysis at the production and comprehension level. Wodak (2001, as cited in Shyholislami) and her colleagues have worked on discourse sociolinguistics. They believed that in discourse sociolinguistics, text and context have equal importance and the text is studied in context. Fairclough (2001, as cited in Shyholislami) in his approach to language and discourse which is called critical language …show more content…
8- 12): 1) Language use (discourse) shapes and is shaped by society. In other words, discourse and society are in a dialectical relationship. 2) Discourse helps to contribute and change knowledge and its objects, social relations, and social identity. 3) Discourse is invested with ideologies and is shaped by power. 4) The shaping of discourse is a stake in power struggles. 5) Critical language study sets out to show how society and discourse shape each other. These five propositions stem from the assumption that language is both socially constitutive and socially determined. Fairclough’s model of critical discourse analysis is influenced by Halliday’s functional …show more content…
A text has an “ideational” function through its representation of the world, an “interpersonal” function through social interactions between participants in discourse, and a “textual” function through uniting separate components into a meaning whole and combining this with a situational context. Likewise, Fairclough (1992) views any discursive event, or any instance of language use, as having three dimensions: text, interaction, and context. Text here can be expanded to semiosis, which is meaning-making through language, body language, visual images, or any other way of signifying. Text is also “an interaction between people, involving process of producing and interpreting the text, and it is part of a piece of social action—and in some cases virtually the whole of it” (Fairclough, 1992, p. 10). In other words, an interpretation of a text is the individual’s interaction with the text, which is part of social action or context. The context here refers to social conditions of production/interpretation, or order of discourse— “totality of discursive practices of an institution and relationships between them” (Fairclough, 1992, p. 138). Corresponding to the three dimensions of discourse, critical analysis also has three dimensions: description of the text, interpretation of the interaction processes, and explanation of how the interaction process relates

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Each of these approaches have different perspectives on how society works and how it can influence the individual in a society. The structural-functional approach focus on the relation between how each part of society cooperate and keeps the society organize. Functionalists think that individual in a society works together and acknowledge each other’s decisions help control the society. In contrast, the social-conflict approach have a more negative outlook on society and its conflicts. The social-conflict approach consists of several different categories, gender-conflict approach, class-conflict, and race-conflict approach.…

    • 926 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Multimodality is a theory which looks at the many different modes that society uses for meaning making and interpretation. According to Royce and Bowcher (2014:4) a mode is defined as a communication channel that a culture recognises such as posture, gaze, colour, images, videos, etc. Modes are resources for making meaning. Theorists who study multimodality explain that in order to completely understand how meaning is conveyed in society it is important to recognise and observe the various modes that that are used for meaning-making. A good example of multimodality can be seen within a stop sign.…

    • 1173 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Foucault On Power Analysis

    • 1082 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Under Van Dijk’s SCA approach, discourse, communication, people’s understanding of social events and social relations are all governed and monitored by social cognition (Van Dijk, 1993, Wodak, 2006). In particular, social actors, within Van Dijk’s conceptualisation, when participating in discourses, they do not rely merely on their personal experience and strategies, but also their accumulative socially shared perceptions. These perceptions are termed as ‘social representations’. Given these social representations and perceptions, the social system is constructed in the cognitive system of the social actors through the coordination procedure of external requirements and social actors’ subjective experience. It accords with the perspective above in terms of power relations and dominance.…

    • 1082 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Social structure and personality consists of three core concepts: social structure, the interactional relationship between individuals and social conditions within a social system; personality, an individual’s cognitive characteristics including values and beliefs; and culture, a collection of values that are shared between members of a society about perceived social expectations. Within the Social Structures and Personality theory, there are also three key principles: the components principle, the proximity principle, and the psychology principle. The components principle is taking into consideration specific elements of society that greatly influence a certain thought or behaviour. The proximity principle is when an individual’s interpersonal interaction with society occurs primarily in an individual’s immediate environment; and the psychology principle is considering the different process of internalization that occurs based on each person’s motives, beliefs, and…

    • 721 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    This lifeworld gets changed by the system, which consists of money and power. The lifeworld and system affects social change by creating social norms in the real world, which get defined by the…

    • 1233 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In this essay I will examine how social structures can cause status inconsistency by defining role and statuses, defining status inconsistency, and providing a personal example. Simply put, a status is a position held by an individual in a social structure (McIntyre, 121). They are identities we have that play a part in how people interact with us, and how we interact with others. There are a variety of different types of statuses, for example occupational status or ethnicity. With these statuses comes expectations.…

    • 669 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In his chapter called,”Society as Symbolic Interaction,” Herbert Blumer, a sociologist, stated, "Thus, human interaction is mediated by the use of symbols, by interpretation, or by ascertaining the meaning of one another 's action" (Blumer 1969). Symbolic interactionism suggests that human behavior is the process of stimulus- interpretation- response. Humans do not just simply respond to stimuli, but instead, they interpret it, give it meaning, and then respond. In addition, there are three different levels of society: the macro level, meso-level, and micro-level. Symbolic interactionism has a focus on the micro-level.…

    • 1288 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In both cases, political power is one of the main ways society can be transformed. Bourdieu’s concept of habitus is defined as “the mental or cognitive structures through which people deal with the social world” (Ritzer 185). Habitus can be identified as social structures…

    • 928 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    There are three ways to view the the social structure of one’s world. The first theory is the structural functionalism theory which is based on helping the society as a whole by contributing and being codependent on one another. Next theory is symbolic interactionism, which main focus is on the importance of language and humans creating their own individual realities. The last theory and most logical one is the conflict theory. It sees the world in a way that is dependent upon power, prestige, and economic resources (Claerbaut, 2015).…

    • 1006 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Interpersonal meaning or clause as exchange. It is expressed by mood structures and modality. It deals with what the clause is doing as a verbal process between speaker/writer and audience (Halliday and Mattiessen, 1994:309). This meaning is influenced by the tenor of discourse. Interpersonal meaning is meaning which express a speaker’s attitudes and judgements.…

    • 935 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays