The Theory Of Artificial Intelligence Essay
While the concept of artificial intelligence is ancient, appearing in Greek mythology and others , the field of artificial intelligence, or AI, was not founded until 1956 during a conference at Darmouth College . Early attempts at artificial intelligence includes W. Grey Walter’s robot turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. Both operated with physical sensors that allowed them to navigate obstacles while carrying out their programming. Though it has been argued that these robots do not possess ‘strong’ artificial intelligence, intelligence on par with that of a human, they do represent ‘weak’ artificial intelligence, or intelligence related to a specific problem or task .
In 1950 Alan Turing published his paper ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ which focused on the question of “Can Machines Think?” . Due to differing definitions of what is thought and what a machine is, he instead proposes the question of could a machine ‘imitate’ a human that it is impossible to distinguish. He concludes that it is indeed possible for a machine to eventually reach a level of intelligence to make it indistinguishable from a human and address nine of the major objections to the idea of machine intelligence.
Among the first major fields of study in AI were “Reasoning as Search”, “Natural
Language”, and “Micro-Worlds” . It wasn’t until the late 1980’s that a shift began from purely symbolic reasoning to a combination of ideas from cybernetics and control theory.…