Eysenck's Theory Of Personality

BESC1490 Introduction to Psychology
Week 8 Personality

1. Personality refers to an individual’s distinctive behaviour, patterns of thought, feelings and motivations that are shown in various situations. There are two theories that have been studied for personality, ‘Structure of personality’ and ‘Individual differences.’ The ‘structure of personality’ is the organisation of enduring patterns and personality processes, whereas ‘individual differences’ is the way of people vary in personality traits. The study of twins demonstrates how genetics can be involved in personality and also how personality can be inherited. Different cultures have a distinct way of understanding personality. Freud see’s how culture pattern can be approached as a set
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Cognitive-social theories suggest that learning, beliefs and expectations play an important role in personality. Personal value refers to individual’s life task, goals and potential outcomes. Behaviour is affected by two expectancies. ‘Behaviour-outcome expectancy’ is a certain behaviour that will lead to a desired outcome whereas ‘Self-efficacy expectancies’ are based on an individuals beliefs and their ability to achieve the desired outcome. Competencies are the skills and abilities to achieve an outcome successfully. Self-regulation involves evaluation and adjusting behaviours to achieve goals.

4. Trait theories are based on emotional, cognitive and behavioural characteristics to characterise an individual’s personality. Eysenck’s theory suggests specific behaviour derive from habits, group of related habits lie under the trait and a group of related traits lay under one super-trait. Eysenck’s theory identifies three overarching psychological types of traits. ‘Extroversion’ refers to risk takers, tendency to be sociable and active. ‘Neuroticism’ refers to emotional stability and ‘Psychoticism’ refers to aggressive, antisocial, impulse and egocentric characteristics.
The five-factor model has five superior traits, which each includes several lower order factors or facets: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and
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Humanistic theories focuses on exclusively human features of personality, such as meaning of life, and not shared by others. The ‘Person-centred approach’ suggests that people who are innately free however society and interpersonal experiences causes them to become mean-spirited and selfish. ‘Phenomenal experience’ suggests that people are subjected to truly understand their perception of the world and conceive of reality. ‘Self concept’ is how individuals perceive themselves. If this is greatly diverged from the ‘ideal self,’ the individual will then alter their personality and behaviour to avoid this painful state. ‘Existential approaches’ suggest that individuals can create their own meaning in life by making commitments to avoid ‘existential dread,’ where life has no absolute value or

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