The Structure And Function Of Carbohydrates Essay

1564 Words Oct 25th, 2014 7 Pages
The structure and function of carbohydrates (25 Marks)
Carbohydrates are made from Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). A monosaccharide is the monomer sub unit of carbohydrates and can be joined together through a condensation reaction to form a glycosidic bond between the two monomers which is known as a disaccharide. The above diagram shows a condensation reaction taking place. There is a reaction between two monomer sub units, in this case α-glucose and ethanol, which involves the linking of the two monomers to create a glycosidic bond and a water molecule, is removed. An anomeric carbon is one that is bonded to two oxygen atoms in a ring like structure. The glycosidic bond is a covalent bond between the hydroxyl group (OH) and hydrogen (H). All monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in water due to having lots of hydroxyl groups. Due to this they interact well with water and so they are soluble.
A monosaccharide is generally a pentose (a sugar which contains 5 carbons hence the prefix “pent” meaning 5) or a hexose (a sugar which contains 6 carbons hence the prefix “hex” meaning 6). Lots of monosaccharide’s can be joined together via the same reaction to form a disaccharide. An example of a monosaccharide is glucose and fructose, both monomers following the structural rule [(CH2O)n] ,where n is any integer, which make the basis of a carbohydrate; as we can see, the monosaccharide’s that make up the carbohydrate all contain the 3 basic elements. Glucose…

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