Insulin is made by special cells called beta cells that are produced by the pancreas. Insulin is used to regulate glucose for metabolism. Insulin allows glucose to enter cells and without this glucose would not enter the cells of the body and blood sugar levels would rise in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. This process of high sugar in the blood without metabolism will eventually develop into Diabetes Mellitus. There are two types of Diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. Either the body becomes autoimmune and starts destroying the beta cells of the pancreas, thus no insulin produced, or the cells of the body become resistant to the insulin or the production of insulin is slowed down and not sufficient for the body (Rohsdahl …show more content…
Signs and symptoms in hyperglycemia include, high blood glucose, glucose in the urine due to your kidneys trying to expel the excess glucose in the blood, thus also having polyuria, and increasing thirst caused by frequent urination that leads to dehydration. (American Diabetes Association, 2014).
Hypoglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels are abnormally low, less than 70 mg/dl. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include shakiness due to the cells starvation for glucose, nervousness, anxiety, sweating and chills, confusion, tachycardia, polyphagia, weakness, altered mental status, seizures, and coma. All of these are caused by lack of glucose. (American Diabetes Association, 2014).
DKA and HHNKA
DKA or diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition where in type 1 diabetes, the blood glucose levels exceed 250 mg/dL. Causes of DKA include infections, particularly pneumonia, UTI 's and sepsis, insulin that is inadequate or noncompliance and CVD 's like myocardial infarction. Signs and symptoms of DKA include a rapid onset of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, general weakness, Kussmaul 's respirations, nausea and vomiting, and often a fruity odor in the breath (Trachtenbarg ,