The Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes

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Pathophysiology

Insulin is made by special cells called beta cells that are produced by the pancreas. Insulin is used to regulate glucose for metabolism. Insulin allows glucose to enter cells and without this glucose would not enter the cells of the body and blood sugar levels would rise in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. This process of high sugar in the blood without metabolism will eventually develop into Diabetes Mellitus. There are two types of Diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. Either the body becomes autoimmune and starts destroying the beta cells of the pancreas, thus no insulin produced, or the cells of the body become resistant to the insulin or the production of insulin is slowed down and not sufficient for the body (Rohsdahl
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When the blood sugar becomes too high in DM I it causes DKA or diabetic ketoacidosis which can be presented with deep-rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, fruity breath caused by acetone, and nausea and vomiting due to metabolic acidosis. (Wisse, 2014)

DM II is presented by symptoms that occur over time slowly, these signs and symptoms include: infections that are more frequent and heal slowly like the kidneys or bladder, increased appetite and thirst, frequent urination, numbness or tingling in the extremities. (Wisse, 2014)

Risk
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Causes of DKA include infections, particularly pneumonia, UTI 's and sepsis, insulin that is inadequate or noncompliance and CVD 's like myocardial infarction. Signs and symptoms of DKA include a rapid onset of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, general weakness, Kussmaul 's respirations, nausea and vomiting, and often a fruity odor in the breath (Trachtenbarg , 2005).

HHNKA or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state is the condition where the blood glucose level exceeds 1000 mg/dL. Occurs more in older patients that have no history of diabetes or patients with diabetes type 2. Age, severe stress, medications, or undiagnosed diabetes may cause HHNKA. Symptoms of this condition include, hyperglycemia which causes loss of fluids and electrolytes that results in severe dehydration, hyperosmolarity, and coma (Rosendahl & Kowalski, 2012).

Complications of

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