Essay on The Scope Of Literature Review
2.1 Scope of Literature Review
This review will be centralised around review of relevant literature underpinning research theory, with creatine, golf physiology, senior sport implications and the wider application of ergogenic aids assuming influence.
2.2 What is Creatine?
Creatine is a naturally occurring ergogenic acid distributed throughout the body, 95% of which is located in the skeletal muscle, with the remaining 5% located in the brain, liver, kidneys and testes (Walker, 1979). Daily creatine turnover to creatinine, its waste product excreted in urine, is around 2g for a 70 kg adult with a purported 120g total creatine pool (TCr) (Persky et al, 2003). Meeting this degradation, creatine is obtained by endogenous production and exogenous sources (Balsom et al 1994). Exogenously creatine is obtained with the inclusion of meat, fish and other animal based products, only trace amounts can be found in plants (Balsom et al, 1994) .Average exogenous intake is around 1g per day from a mixed diet, therefore this figure much be matched equally endogenously.
Total creatine pool (TCr) is the sum of the two sources of creatine in the body, intramuscular stored, PCr and free creatine present in the bloodstream. Research by Meyer et al (1984), has shown the breakdown of the TCr is 65% PCr, stored mainly in type II muscle fibres, with the remaining 35% remaining un-phosphorylated. Creatine is transported into tissue using a concentration gradient, with the…